Forget the doctrine of discovery: these are the true doctrines of colonialism and Indian residential schools (2024)

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Christianity as Praxis for Colonialism: The Doctrine of Discovery from 1452 to today

Christianity as Praxis for Colonialism: The Doctrine of Discovery from 1452 to today

2023 •

Telma Alencar

Throughout History, Christianity has been used to legitimize and reinforce the power and wealth of ruling elites. Such effects have been accomplished in several ways, among them the endorsem*nt of the wealthy by church leaders, the control of resources and land by the Church, and the use of religious language to justify the ruling elite's power. In Medieval Europe, the Catholic Church often provided a political and philosophical justification for the ruling class's actions besides providing spiritual and political legitimacy to protect their interests and actions. In this way, Christianity was used to support the ruling class's interests and reinforce their power and wealth. This trend has also been seen in other historical contexts, such as the colonial period in the Americas, where Christianity was used to support the interests of the colonizers and the oppression, enslavement and murder of original peoples. This interdisciplinary proposed research seeks to evaluate Catholicism's role as praxis for colonialism, exploring the part of the legal construct known as the Doctrine of Discovery in the ongoing colonization of Indigenous peoples. (Miller, 2011). The research focuses on Catholicism's relations to colonialism, specifically the intersections of Catholicism with race and power as expressed in the Doctrines' principles embedded in a set of Catholic church documents, among them several Papal Bulls, including but not limited to Bull Dum Diversas, dated 1452. Such papal bull called for non-Christian peoples to be invaded, captured, vanquished, subdued and reduced to perpetual slavery. Pope Nicholas V issued the 1452 Bull Dum Diversas, addressed to Portuguese King Afonso V and conceded Portugal's right to attack, conquer and subjugate "others."

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International Law and Islam Historical Explorations ed. I. de la Rasilla del Moral; A. Shahid

Law religion and power: texts and discourse of conquest

2018 •

luigi nuzzo

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Samara Journal of Science

The policy of Catholic Monarchs and Popes in the New World on the Christianization of the population and the policy of local authorities (1492–1513)

2021 •

Konstantin Ashrafyan

The aim was to study the attitude towards slavery and freedom for the natives of the open lands of America on the part of the Spanish Crown, on the one hand, and Christopher Columbus in 14911504, and then his son Diego Columbus, appointed governor of Hispaniola in 1508 and became viceroy of the West Indies, on the other. As a result, the texts of the bulls of Pope Alexander VI for May 3 and May 4, September 26, 1493, letters of Catholic Monarchs, letters of Christopher Columbus, letters and orders of Bobadilla and Nicholas Ovando and the events of 1511 in Hispaniola described in the book of Las Casas, as well as documents on the results of the work of the Junta of Burgos in 1512 and the Junta of Valladolid in 1513 were studied and analyzed. The study showed the true and humane attitude of Catholic Monarchs towards the natives of America and the emergence of laws under which the natives of America were granted freedom and equal rights with the Castilians. It also shows the policy of ...

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Andrews University Seminary Studies


2018 •

Kevin Burrell

It is certainly more than a truism to say that Protestant Reformation theology has impacted Christian faith and practice in a myriad of ways, including giving rise to a vibrant Protestant missiology. Yet, what remains relatively unexplored in the context of the Reformation and Christian mission is the impact of Reformation political theology on empire-building; specifically, the connection between Protestant mission and the extension of European political hegemony over distant lands, which began in the early modern period. This study attempts to show first that the Reformation reframing of the relationship between church and state failed to challenge the " theology of empire " inherent in Roman Catholicism, and second, that Protestant imperial expansion was equally buttressed by a religious ideology which assumed an equivalence between colonization and the fulfillment of the Great Commission. In the case of Christian expansion into the Americas both before and after the Reformation, the results were disastrous for indigenous peoples and their cultures. This assessment calls for a rethinking of Christianity's historical relationship to empire, its modes of propagation in the modern period, and the nature of its mission in the twenty-first century.

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Our Souls are Already Cared For: Indigenous Reactions to Religious Colonialism in Seventeenth-Century New England, New France, and New Mexico

2020 •

Gail Coughlin

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Maria Elizabeth Olavides-Soriano

Filipino historians view the intimate relationship between the Catholic religion and Spanish colonialism differently. Each opinion focuses on the role religion played in colonialism during the 15th to the 17th centuries. Renato Constantino believes that religion served as the idealogical justification for the expeditions in order to conceal the crass motives of the Kings. In this view the Church evolved from a colonial accessory to the principal apparatus of colonial appropriation and exploitation (p.82). Teodoro Agoncillo asserts that while the laws of Indies had vested in the Church the duty to defend the natives (defensores de los indios), the Church itself caused much oppression and suffering among the masses (p.89). In contrast, Gregorio Zaide glorifies the achievements of the missionaries and insists that the Church was the real hero in the Spanish conquest of the Philippines because of its contributions which resulted in the good will of the natives (p.159). Which opinion is valid and acceptable? Is it correct to reduce the role of the Church during colonial times to good or evil?

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California Western International Law Journal

From Papal Bull To Racial Rule: Indians of the Americas, Race, and the Foundations of International Law

2012 •

Kim Vera

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The Doctrine of Discovery and The Doctrine of Conquest related to the Establishment of the Residential School System

Dee Ansbergs

My original intent was to use the theory of Symbolic Convergence, through the lens and methodology of Fantasy Theme Criticism and Artifacts from the Indian Residential School Era to be analyze and assist in providing insights into the “shared worldview of groups” particularly those of Euro-Americans and colonists as shown by the grand fantasy and many developing sub-genres an fantasies in of Euro-Americans which provided the rhetorical and other underpinnings for the relationship between colonized and colonizer which eventually led to the establishment of the system known as the Residential Indian School Era. It was expected to use pictures and texts as the original artifacts. The artifacts used changed as the research locate ancient documents, and writings and comments from the colonial era. In getting to the root of the rhetorical underpinnings and language of the times that supported the laws that instigated the Indian Residential School era, a more thorough digging changed the process quite dramatically. The Doctrine of Discovery and the Doctrine of Conquest shaped the early colonization and interactions between colonist and the colonized in ways that hadn't been thoroughly understood.

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From the Body of the Faithful to the Invention of Religion: the Long Reformation for International Relations

2011 •

Sarah Bania-Dobyns

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Arc-Humanities Press/Amsterdam University Press

Coloniality and the Rise of Liberation Thinking during the Sixteenth Century, Chapter 2

2021 •

Thomas Ward

Chapter 2: One transatlantic element of the nation, Catholicism, could, on the one hand, be a repressive force when clergy and other believers, on a daily basis, did not respect their own New Testament ideal of dividing spiritual and temporal power. This was especially the case in the New World. The encomienda and Royal Patronage were two ways religion was supportive of the negative determinants of the nation found in slavery and encomienda. The chapter explains how idea of division of temporal and religious power comes from Jesus’ maxim about Caesar and God as divergent realms of power in various colonial contexts, in the so-called Conquest, in the encomienda, in Royal Patronage, and in the Church hierarchy in order to measure Christianity’s purity. Consciousness of the problem suggests the need for reform and sets the stage for reformist reasoning to germinate. Special attention given to Hernán Cortés.

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Forget the doctrine of discovery: these are the true doctrines of colonialism and Indian residential schools (2024)
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